Contents

- 1 VTU Physics Cycle Syllabus
- 2 Engineering Physics syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus
- 3 Elements of Civil Engineering and Mechanics syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus
- 4 Elements of Mechanical Engineering syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus
- 5 Basic Electrical Engineering syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus
- 6 Workshop Practice syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus
- 7 Engineering Physics Laboratory syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus

**VTU Physics Cycle Syllabus**

**Engineering Physics syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus**

**Modern Physics and Quantum Mechanics**

Black body radiation spectrum, Assumptions of quantum theory ofradiation, Plank’s law, Weins law and Rayleigh Jeans law, for shorter andlonger wavelength limits. Wave Particle dualism, deBroglie hypothesis.Compton Effect. Matter waves and their Characteristic properties,Definition of Phase velocity and group velocity, Relation between phasevelocity and group velocity, Relation between group velocity and particlevelocity.

Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle and its application, (Non-existence ofelectron in the nucleus).Wave function, Properties and physicalsignificance of wave function, Probability density and Normalization ofwave function. Setting up of one dimensional time independentSchrodinger wave equation. Eigen values and Eigen functions.Application of Schrodinger wave equation for a particle in a potential wellof infinite depth and for free particle.

**Electrical Properties of Materials**

Free–electron concept (Drift velocity, Thermal velocity, Mean collisiontime, Mean free path, relaxation time). Failure of classical free electrontheory. Quantum free electron theory, Assumptions, Fermi factor, densityof states (qualitative only) Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Expression for electricalconductivity based on quantum free electron theory, Merits of quantumfree electron theory.

Conductivity of Semi conducting materials, Concentration of electronsand holes in intrinsic semiconductors, law of mass action.

Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconductingmaterials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Type I and Type IIsuperconductors–Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory(qualitative). High temperature superconductors. Applications ofsuperconductors –. Maglev vehicles.

**Lasers and Optical Fibers**

Einstein’s coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of aLaser system. Condition for laser action. Principle, Construction andworking of CO2 laser and semiconductor Laser. Applications of Laser –Laser welding, cutting and drilling. Measurement of atmosphericpollutants. Holography–Principle of Recording and reconstruction ofimages.

Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numericalaperture. Types of optical fibers and modes of propagation. Attenuation,Block diagram discussion of point to point communication, applications.

**Crystal Structure**

Space lattice, Bravais lattice–Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters.Crystal systems. Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices.Expression for inter – planar spacing. Co-ordination number. Atomicpacking factors (SC,FCC,BCC). Bragg’s law, Determination of crystalstructure using Bragg’s X–ray difractometer. Polymarphism and Allotropy.Crystal Structure of Diamond, qualitative discussion of Pervoskites.

**Shock waves and Science of Nano Materials**

Definition of Mach number, distinctions between- acoustic, ultrasonic,subsonic and supersonic waves. Description of a shock wave and itsapplications. Basics of conservation of mass, momentum and energy.Normal shock equations (Rankine-Hugonit equations). Method of creatingshock waves in the laboratory using a shock tube, description of handoperated Reddy shock tube and its characteristics.

Introduction to Nano Science, Density of states in 1D, 2D and 3Dstructures. Synthesis : Top–down and Bottom–up approach, Ball Millingand Sol–Gel methods.

CNT – Properties, synthesis: Arc discharge, Pyrolysis methods,Applications.

Scanning Electron microscope: Principle, working and applications.

**Elements of Civil Engineering and Mechanics syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus**

**Introduction to Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics**

**Introduction to Civil Engineering**

Scope of different fields of Civil Engineering – Surveying, BuildingMaterials, Construction Technology, Geotechnical Engineering,Structural Engineering, Hydraulics, WaterResources and IrrigationEngineering, Transportation Engineering, Environmental Engineering.Infrastructure: Types of infrastructure, Role of Civil Engineer intheInfrastructural Development, Effect of the infrastructural facilitiesonsocio-economic development of a country.

Roads: Classification of Roads and their functions, Comparison ofFlexible and Rigid Pavements (Advantages and Limitations)

Bridges: Types of Bridges and Culverts, RCC, Steel and CompositeBridges

Dams: Different types of Dams based on Material, Structural behaviorand functionality with simple sketches.

**Introduction to Engineering Mechanics:**

Basic idealizations – Particle, Continuum and Rigid body; Newton’slawsBForce and its characteristics, types of forces-Gravity, Lateral andits distribution on surfaces, Classification of force systems, Principle ofphysical independence, superposition, transmissibility of forces, ,Introduction to SI units.

Couple, Moment of a couple, Characteristics of couple, Moment of aforce, Equivalent force – Couple system; Numerical problems onmoment of forces and couples, on equivalent force – couple system

**Introduction to Civil Engineering & Engineering Mechanics**

**Introduction to Civil Engineering**

Scope of different fields of Civil Engineering – Surveying, BuildingMaterials, Construction Technology, Geotechnical Engineering,Structural Engineering, Hydraulics, WaterResources and IrrigationEngineering, Transportation Engineering, Environmental Engineering.Infrastructure: Types of infrastructure, Role of Civil Engineer intheInfrastructural Development, Effect of the infrastructural facilitiesonsocio-economic development of a country.

Roads: Classification of Roads and their functions, Comparison ofFlexible and Rigid Pavements (Advantages and Limitations)

Bridges: Types of Bridges and Culverts, RCC, Steel and CompositeBridges

Dams: Different types of Dams based on Material, Structural behaviorand functionality with simple sketches.

**Introduction to Engineering Mechanics:**

Basic idealizations – Particle, Continuum and Rigid body; Newton’slawsBForce and its characteristics, types of forces-Gravity, Lateral andits distribution on surfaces, Classification of force systems, Principle ofphysical independence, superposition, transmissibility of forces, ,Introduction to SI units.

Couple, Moment of a couple, Characteristics of couple, Moment of aforce, Equivalent force – Couple system; Numerical problems onmoment of forces and couples, on equivalent force – couple system

**Concepts: Resultants and Equilibrium**

Composition of coplanar – non-concurrent force system, Varignon’sprinciple of moments; Numerical problems on composition of coplanarnon-concurrent Force system.

**Application-Support Reaction in beams**

Types of Loads and Supports, statically determinate beams, Numericalproblems onsupport reactions for statically determinate beams withPoint load (Normal and inclined) and uniformly distributed anduniformly varying loads and Moments.

**Centroids**

Introduction to the concept, centroid of line and area, centroid of basicgeometrical figures, computing centroid for– T, L, I, Z andfull/quadrant circular sections and their built up sections. Numericalproblems

**Moment of Inertia**

Introduction to the concept, Radius of gyration, Parallel axis theorem,Perpendicular axis theorem, Moment of Inertia of basic planar figures,computing moment of Inertia for – T, L, I, Z and full/quadrant circularsections and their built up sections. Numerical problems

**Concepts and Applications**

Definitions – Displacement – Average velocity – Instantaneous velocity– Speed – Acceleration – Average acceleration – Variable acceleration –Acceleration due to gravity – Newton’s Laws of Motion

Rectilinear Motion–Numerical problems.

Curvilinear Motion – Super elevation – ProjectileMotion – Relativemotion – Numerical problems.

Motion under gravity – Numerical problems

**Elements of Mechanical Engineering syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus**

**Energy Resources **:Non-renewable and renewable energy resources,Petroleum based solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, Calorific values offuels, Combustion and combustion products of fuels, Solar Power :Solar Radiation,

Solar constant (definition only), Solar Thermal energy harvesting, ex:liquid flat plate collectors, solar ponds (principle of operation only),Solar photovoltaic principle.WindPower :principle of operation of atypical windmill. Hydro Power :Principles of electric power generationfrom hydropowerplants, Nuclear Power : Principles of Nuclear powerplants, Bio Fuels : introduction to bio fuels, examples of variousbiofuels used in engineering applications, Comparison of biofuels withpetroleum fuels in terms of calorific value and emission. **Steam Formation and Properties :**

Classification of boilers, Lancashire boiler, Babcock and Wilcox boiler,boiler mountings and accessories (No sketches for mountings andaccessories), wet steam, saturated and superheated steam, specificvolume, enthalpy andinternal energy. (No numerical problems in thismodule)

**Turbines and IC Engines and Pumps Steam turbines :**Classification,Principle of operation of Impulse and reaction turbines, Delaval’sturbine, Parson’s turbine. (No compounding of turbines).

**Gas turbines** :Classification, Working principles and Operations ofOpen cycle and closed cycle gas turbines.

**Water turbines**:Classification, Principles and operations of Peltonwheel, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine

**Internal Combustion Engines** :Classification, I.C. Engines parts, 2Stroke and 4 stroke Petrol engines, 4 stroke diesel engines. P-Vdiagrams of Otto and Diesel cycles. Problems on indicated power,brake power, indicatedthermal efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency, andspecific fuel consumption, [numericals on IC Engines].

**Machine Tools and Automation Machine Tools Operations :**

Turning, facing, knurling, Thread cutting, Taper Turning by swivellingthe compound rest, Drilling, Boring, Reaming, Tapping, CounterSinking, Counter Boring, -Plane milling, End milling, Slot milling. (Nosketches of Machine tools, sketches to be used only for explainingoperations. Students to be shown the available machine tools in theMachine Shop of the college before explaining the operations)**Robotics and Automation :**

**Robotics** :Introduction, classification based on robots configuration;Polar, cylindrical, Cartesian Coordinate and spherical. Application,Advantages, and disadvantages

**Automation **:Definition, types –Fixed, Programmable & Flexibleautomation, NC/ CNC machines: Basic elements with simple blockdiagrams, advantages and disadvantages.

**Engineering materials and joining processes :**

**Engineering Materials** :Types and applications of Ferrous &Nonferrous metals and alloys,

**Composites **:Introduction: Definition, Classification and applications(Air craft and Automobiles)

**Soldering, Brazing and Welding :**

Definitions, classification and method of soldering, Brazing andwelding. Differences between soldering, Brazing and Welding.Description of Electric Arc Welding and Oxy-Acetylene Welding.

**Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning :**

**Refrigerants **:properties of refrigerants, list of commonly usedrefrigerants. Refrigeration –Definitions – Refrigerating effect, Ton ofRefrigeration, Ice making capacity, COP, Relative COP, unit ofRefrigeration. Principle and working of vapor compression refrigerationand vapour absorption refrigeration: Principles and applications of airconditioners, Room air conditioner.

### Basic Electrical Engineering syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus

**D C circuits: **Ohm’s Law and Kirchhoff’s Laws, analysis of series, parallel and seriesparallelcircuits excited by independent voltage sources. Power and Energy. Illustrativeexamples. **Electromagnetism:**

Review of field around a conductor and coil, magnetic flux and flux density, magnetomotiveforce and magnetic field intensity, reluctance and permeability, definition of magneticcircuit and basic analogy between electric and magnetic circuits. (These topics are not to beconsidered for setting the examination questions).

**Electromagnetic induction:**

Definition of Electromagnetic Induction, Faradays Laws,Fleming’s right hand rule, Lenz’s Law, Statically and dynamically induced emf. Selfinductance,mutual inductance and coefficient of coupling. Energy stored in magneticfield. Illustrative examples. Force on current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field,Fleming’s left hand rule.

**DC Machines: **Working principle of DC machine as a generator and a motor. Typesand constructional features. Types of armature windings, Emf equation of generator,relation between induced emf and terminal voltage with a mention of brush contact dropand drop due to armature reaction. Illustrative examples, neglecting armature reaction.

Operation of DC motor, back emf, torque equation. Types of DC motors, characteristics andapplications. Significance of back emf. Necessity of a starter for DC motor. Illustrativeexamples on back emf and torque.

**Measuring Instruments**: Construction and Principle of operation of dynamometer typewattmeterand single phase induction type energy meter.

**Single-phase AC circuits: **Generation of sinusoidal voltage, frequency of generated voltage,definition and numerical values of average value, root mean square value, form factorand peak factor of sinusoidally varying quantities, phasor representation of alternatingquantities. Analysis, with phasor diagrams, of R, L, C, R-L, R-C and R-L-C circuits and,parallel and series- parallel circuits. Real power, reactive power, apparent power and powerfactor. Illustrative examples.

**Domestic wiring:**

Service mains, meter board and distribution board. Brief discussion on concealed conduitwiring. Two-way and three-way control. Elementary discussion on Circuit protectivedevices: fuse and Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB’s). Electric shock, precautions againstshock, Objectives of Earthing, types of earthing; pipe and plate earthing, Residual currentcircuit breaker (RCCB).

**Three Phase Circuits:** Necessity and advantages of three phase systems, generation ofthree phase power. Definition of Phase sequence, balanced supply and balanced load.Relationship between line and phase values of balanced star and delta connections. Powerin balanced three-phase circuits, measurement of power by two-wattmeter method.Determination power factor using wattmeter readings. Illustrative examples.

**Three PhaseSynchronous Generators**: Principle of operation, Types and constructionalfeatures, Advantages of rotating field type alternator, Synchronous speed, Frequency ofgenerated voltage, Emf equation. Concept of winding factor (excluding the derivation ofdistribution and pitch factors). Illustrative examples on calculation of distribution factor,pitch factor and emf equation.

**Single Phase Transformers:**

Necessity of transformer, Principle of operation and construction of single-phasetransformers (core and shell types). Emf equation, losses, variation losses with respect toload, efficiency, Condition for maximum efficiency, Voltage regulation and its significance(Open Circuit and Short circuit tests, equivalent circuit and phasor diagrams are excluded).Illustrative problems on emf equation and efficiency only.

**Three Phase Induction Motors:** Principle of operation, Concept and production ofrotating magnetic field, Synchronous speed, rotor speed, Slip, Frequency of the rotorinduced emf, Types and Constructional features. Slip and its significance. Applications ofsquirrel – cage and slip – ring motors. Necessity of a starter, starting of motor using starsdeltastarter. Illustrative examples on slip calculations.

**Workshop Practice syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus**

1. Use of Hand Tools: V-block, Marking Gauge, Files, Hack Saw,Drills, Taps and Minimum 3 models involving Dove tail joint,Triangular joint and Semicircular joint.

2. Welding: Study of electric arc welding tools &equipments,Models: Butt Joint, Lap Joint, T joint & L-joint.

3. Sheet Metal & Soldering Work: Development & Soldering of themodels: Tray, Frustum of cone, Prism(Hexagon &Pentagon),Truncated Square Pyramid, Funnel.

4. Study & Demonstration of power tools in MechanicalEngineering.

**Engineering Physics Laboratory syllabus for Physics Cycle 1 Sem 2017 scheme | Vtu Syllabus**

Black box experiment; Identification of unknown passiveelectrical components and determine the value of Inductanceand Capacitance

Series and parallel LCR Circuits (Determination of resonantfrequency and quality factor)

I–V Characteristics of Zener Diode. (determination of kneevoltage, zener voltage and forward resistance)

Characteristics of Transistor (Study of Input and Outputcharacteristics and calculation of input resistance, outputresistance and amplification factor)

Photo Diode Characteristics (Study of I–V characteristics inreverse bias and variation of photocurrent as a function ofreverse voltage and intensity).

Dielectric constant (Measurement of dielectric constant).

Diffraction (Measurement of wavelength of laser source usingdiffraction grating)

Torsional pendulum (Determination of M.I. of wire and Rigidity modulus).

Determination of Fermi energy. (Measurement of Fermi energy in copper).

Uniform Bending Experiment (Determination of Youngsmodulus of material bar)

Newtons Rings, (Determination of radius of curvature ofplano convex lens).

Verification of Stefan’s Law